According to the January 1, 2010 the total population of the Sverdlovsk region was 4393.8 thousand people. The population of the Sverdlovsk region ranks fifth among the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. National structure of population (2002 census): Russian – 89.2%, Tatars – 3.7%, Mansi – 0.006%, other nationalities – 7.1%.
Population density: 23 people per 1 square kilometer.
The climate is temperate continental. Winters are cold, snowy and long. The average temperature in January in the south is -16°C, in the north is -18°C. large extent of the region from north to south (600 km) causes a significant variety of climate conditions. Summers in the plain are warm (average temperature in July is 18°C) and cool in the mountains.The Ural mountains, in spite of a small height, block the way to Western winds from European part of Russia.
As a result the Middle Urals is open to the incursions of cold Arctic winds and cold continental air from Western Siberia. Warm air masses freely enter to the south of the Caspian and Central Asian deserts. Therefore, the Middle Urals is characterized by sharp fluctuations in temperature and the formation of weather events such as severe frosts and thaws in winter and heat above 33°C and freezing weather with rain in the summer.In the mountains of the Middle Urals, on average 800-900 mm of rain falls per year, on the plain – about 400 mm. The number of sunshine hours is 1400-2000 per year.
Sverdlovsk region is an important transport hub. Rail, road and air routes of national importance, including the Trans-Siberian railway pass through Yekaterinburg. Density of railway and road network exceeds the national average.
Station «Yekaterinburg-passazhirskiy» is a a major transport hub, located on the main course of the Trans-Siberian Railway. Every day, the station serves more than 115,000 people, sending more than 30 passenger and 200 suburban trains.
Highway connections made on four federal highways: 1 P 242 (Perm-Yekaterinburg), M 5 (Yekaterinburg-Chelyabinsk), 1 P 354 (Yekaterinburg-Kurgan-Shadrinsk), 1 P 351 (Yekaterinburg-Tyumen).
A major international airport «Koltsovo» Located in Yekaterinburg. «Koltsovo» ranks 5th according to the number of passengers in the ranking of the largest airports in the Russian Federation after Moscow airports and St. Petersburg airport «Pulkovo». Airport «Koltsovo» cooperates with over 30 airlines providing flights to 80 countries around the world.
Sverdlovsk region – the largest region of the Urals. The region occupies the central, northern part of the Ural Mountains, part of the West Siberian Lowland (Zauralye), and partly – land before the Urals (far southwest).
The highest point – Mount Konzhakovsky kamen (1569 meters). Most northern point – Mount Yanyghachechahl (1023.8 meters). The region forms the border between the two parts of the world, Europe and Asia.
The Ural mountain range stretches from the shores of the Arctic Ocean in the north to semi-desert areas of Kazakhstan in the south: for over 2500 km, it separates the East European and West Siberian plains.
In Sverdlovsk Region, there are 18 604 rivers with total length of 68 thousand miles, most of which starts in the Ural Mountains. The main rivers in the east – Tavda, Tura, Iset (Ob-Irtysh basin) in the west – Chusovaya and Ufa (the Volga-Kama basin). Many freshwater lakes (over 2500) with total surface area 1100 sq. km. The largest of them: Pelymsky Tuman, Bolshaya Indra, Vagilsky Tuman, Isetskoe and Tavatuy.
Many man-made reservoirs: 134 reservoirs and 120 ponds. Most of them are laid down in the XVIII century during the construction of factories, which used the energy of water. In Sverdlovsk region there are significant reserves of underground mineral waters. Among surveyed: hydro-chloride, sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride, cold and thermal, sodium chloride hydrogen sulfide, radon, and ferruginous water.
Flora and fauna
Most of Sverdlovsk region is covered by forests. The mountainous part is mainly dark coniferous taiga, turning with height in the tundra with moss and lichen. Pine forests dominate on the plains, and pass into the aspen and birch forests with patches of forest-steppe in the south of the region. Forests cover about 70% of the region.
The southern part of the region is well mastered and domesticated, and the northern poorly populated and, therefore, little modified. Over 1,900 various kinds of plants grow within the region. Nearly 212 kinds of different animals and birds inhabit in the region. The fauna is typical for taiga and forest steppe. In addition to the Siberian species (columns, chipmunk, roe deer), there are also European (European mink and forest polecat). Among the taiga animals there are many commercially valuable fur animals: sable, weasel, marten, fox, squirrel, otter, mink, beaver, lynx, wolverine, moose, brown bear. Reindeer may be found in the far north of the region.
Pike, perch, ruff, roach, bream, ide, burbot, minnows inhabit all the rivers and lakes of the region. Gudgeon, dace, tench live in southern waters. In the rivers of the Ob-Irtysh basin peled usual – fish commercial value, as well as valuable Siberian species – salmon, Tugunov. You can find the Siberian grayling in mountain rivers. In the rivers of the Volga-Kama basin usual European fish – rudd, chub, chub, eel. Carp is bred in many ponds of the region.
Mineral resources are central among the natural resources of the Urals. The Urals ranks first in world in the production of certain mineral ores.
In the center of the Urals – Sverdlovsk region – there are significant reserves of minerals such as iron, copper, coal, peat, gold, platinum, silver, manganese, nickel, titanium, vanadium, chromium, asbestos, bauxite, precious stones, rare earth elements. Consequently, the basis of the regional economy is the mining and steel industry.
Middle Urals – a highly developed industrial area. steel structure dominates the industry. ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy (31% and 19% of industrial production), the enrichment of uranium and enrichment of iron ore, machinery.
The industrial complex of the region includes more than 5,400 enterprises from different sectors and forms of ownership engaged in mining, metallurgical, chemical, timber industries, machine building and instrument making, energetics, building industry.
The main industrial centers in the region: Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Tagil, Kamensk-Uralsky, Pervouralsk, Serov.
Ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy has a large development on the basis of its own raw materials. It served as the basis for the development of mechanical engineering. Forestry and chemical industries, construction materials, light and food industries, pharmaceutical production are fast developing in the region.
Metallurgy has historically been the base of the Ural branch of industry. The largest enterprises of ferrous metallurgy: Nizhny Tagil Metallurgical Combine (4/5 iron and 2/3 were in Sverdlovsk region), steel plants in towns such as Serov, Verkhnyaya Salda, Alapaevsk. Non-ferrous metallurgy is represented by copper smelters and steel in towns such as Krasnouralsk, Revda and Verkhnyaya Pyshma.
The largest enterprises for the production of mining and metallurgical equipment: "Uralmash" (Yekaterinburg), machine-building factories in towns sush as Artyomovsk and Karpinsk; manufacture of turbines – "Turbomotor factory"; high-capacity car – "Uralvagonzavod" (Nizhny Tagil). Among the enterprises of electrotechnical industry: "Uralelectrotyazhmash", electrotechnical plants in towns sush as Kamensk-Uralsky, Karpinsk, Kushva, Sysert, Nizhnyaya Tura.
"Uralkhimmash" produces equipment for the chemical industry. Yekaterinburg plant "Sverdlesmash", Alapaevsk mechanical plant, Kushvinsk woodworking machine building plant, Kamyshlovsk plant "Leskhozmash" produces equipment for the forestry and wood industry.
Chemical production are closely related to ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, among other enterprises there are plants specializing in: rubber products, tires and ebonite products (Yekaterinburg), chemicals (Verkhnyaya Pyshma).
Iron and steel industry Sverdlovsk region
• Nizhny Tagil Metallurgical Combine (NTMC) – - one of the largest metallurgical complex of Russia;
• Metallurgical Plant named after A.K. Serov – one of the largest metallurgical plants in region, part of UMMC Holding;
• Uraltrubprom – Urals Pipe Works – a major producer of electric welded pipes and metal constructions in Russia;
• Pervouralsk Novotrubny plant – one of the largest enterprises in Russia and Europe producing steel pipes;
• UMMC-Holding – one of the largest metallurgical holdings in Russia;
• OAO "Uralelectromed" – the parent company of nonferrous metallurgy in OAO "Ural Mining and Metallurgical Company";
• Bogoslovsky aluminum factory enterprises of nonferrous metallurgy.It Belongs to "Rusal" company from 2007;
• Ural aluminum plant – a comprehensive manufacturer of alumina and aluminum. It Included in "Rusal" company;
• VSMPO-Avisma – Russian company known as the world's largest producer of titanium;
• Revdinsky plant OCM – one of the leading Russian enterprises producing tubes and rods made from copper, brass, copper-nickel alloy and bronze;
• Kamensk-Uralsky plant OCM – one of the leading nonferrous metal in Russia;
• Kachkanarsky GOK "Vanady" – Russian producer of iron-ore raw materials. Part of OOO «Evraz Holding» since 2004;
• Kamensk-Uralky Metallurgical Plant – a major producer of high-tech products from deformable aluminum, magnesium and titanium alloys;
• Seversky Pipe plant — is the oldest metallurgical plant in the Urals, part of OAO "TMK";
• Sinarsky Pipe Plant – the company specializing in production of iron and steel pipes.
Agriculture and agribusiness
Sverdlovsk region is specialized in the production of feed grains, potatoes, vegetables, milk and milk products, meat (beef, pork, poultry) and eggs.
The region focuses on the sustainable development of rural areas, creation of common conditions for agriculture, as well as the development of priority sub-sectors of agriculture (crops and livestock). Work is also underway on purchasing of agricultural products from the citizens engaged in a private farm.
The leading branch of agriculture is livestock. About half of the acreage occupied by forage crops.